Schedules to the Financial Statements for the year ended March 31, 2010

16. Significant accounting policies and notes on accounts

Company overview

Infosys Technologies Australia Pty Ltd (the “Company”) is a Company domiciled in Australia. The Company is of a kind referred to in Class Order 98/0100 dated 10 July 1998 (updated by CO 05/641 effective 28 July 2005 and CO 06/51 effective 31 January 2006), issued by the Australian Securities & Investments Commission.

16.1. Significant accounting policies

16.1.1. Basis of preparation of financial statements

These financial statements as at and the year ended March 31, 2010 have been prepared under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis except for certain financial instruments which have been measured at fair values. Accounting policies have been applied consistently to all periods presented in these financial statements.

16.1.2. Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the period. Examples of such estimates include computation of percentage of completion which requires the Company to estimate the efforts expended to date as a proportion of the total efforts to be expended, provisions for doubtful debts, future obligations under employee retirement benefit plans, income taxes, post-sales customer support and the useful lives of fixed assets and intangible assets.

Accounting estimates could change from period to period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Appropriate changes in estimates are made as the Management becomes aware of changes in circumstances surrounding the estimates. Changes in estimates are reflected in the financial statements in the period in which changes are made and, if material, their effects are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.

The Management periodically assesses using, external and internal sources, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying value of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is higher of the asset's net selling price and value in use, which means the present value of future cash flows expected to arise from the continuing use of the asset and its eventual disposal. An impairment loss for an asset is reversed if, and only if, the reversal can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment loss was recognized. The carrying amount of an asset is increased to its revised recoverable amount, provided that this amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of any accumulated amortization or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years.

16.1.3. Revenue recognition

Revenue is primarily derived from software development and related services and from business process management services. Arrangements with customers for software development and related services are either on a fixed-price, fixed-timeframe or on a time-and-material basis.

Revenue on time-and-material contracts are recognized as the related services are performed and revenue from the end of the last billing to the Balance Sheet date is recognized as unbilled revenues. Revenue from fixed-price and fixed-timeframe contracts, where there is no uncertainty as to measurement or collectability of consideration, is recognized based upon the percentage of completion. When there is uncertainty as to measurement or ultimate collectability revenue recognition is postponed until such uncertainty is resolved. Cost and earnings in excess of billings are classified as unbilled revenue while billing in excess of cost and earnings is classified as unearned revenue. Provision for estimated losses, if any, on uncompleted contracts are recorded in the period in which such losses become probable based on the current estimates.

Annual Technical Services revenue and revenue from fixed-price maintenance contracts are recognized ratably over the period in which services are rendered. Revenue from the sale of user licenses for software applications is recognized on transfer of the title in the user license, except in case of multiple element contracts, which require significant implementation services, where revenue for the entire arrangement is recognized over the implementation period based upon the percentage-of-completion. Revenue from client training, support and other services arising due to the sale of software products is recognized as the related services are performed.

The Company accounts for volume discounts and pricing incentives to customers as a reduction of revenue based on the ratable allocation of the discount / incentive amount to each of the underlying revenue transactions that result in progress by the customer towards earning the discount / incentive. Also, when the level of discount varies with increases in levels of revenue transactions, the Company recognizes the liability based on its estimate of the customer's future purchases. If it is probable that the criteria for the discount will not be met, or if the amount thereof cannot be estimated reliably, then discount is not recognized until the payment is probable and the amount can be estimated reliably. The Company recognizes changes in the estimated amount of obligations for discounts using a cumulative catchup approach. The discounts are passed on to the customer either as direct payments or as a reduction of payments due from the customer.

The Company presents revenues net of value-added taxes in its Profit and Loss account.

16.1.4. Provisions and contingent liabilities

A provision is recognized if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present legal obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. A provision for an onerous contract is recognized when the expected benefits to be derived by the company from a contract are lower than the unavoidable cost of meeting its obligations under the contract. Provisions are determined by the best estimate of the outflow of economic benefits required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. Where no reliable estimate can be made, a disclosure is made as contingent liability. A disclosure for a contingent liability is also made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. Where there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made. There were no contingent liabilities as at balance date and at the end of the prior year.

16.1.5. Property, plant and equipment

All assets acquired, including property, plant and equipment are initially recorded at their cost of acquisition at the date of acquisition, being the fair value of the consideration provided plus incidental costs directly attributable to the acquisition. Fixed assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and impairments, if any.

16.1.6. Depreciation and amortization

Depreciation is calculated on a straight line basis to write off the net cost of each item of property, plant and equipment over its expected useful life to the entity. Estimates of remaining useful lives are made on a regular basis for all assets, with annual reassessments for major items. The expected useful lives are as follows:

Plant and equipment 5 years
Computer equipment 2 years
Furniture and fittings 5 years

All expenditure on software is expensed as incurred. Leasehold improvements are amortized over their estimated useful life.

16.1.7. Retirement benefits to employees

16.1.7.a. Employee benefit on-costs

Employee benefit on-costs, including payroll tax, are recognized and included in employee benefit liabilities and costs when the employee benefits to which they relate are recognized as liabilities. Obligations for contributions to defined contribution superannuation funds are recognized as an expense in profit or loss when they are due.

16.1.8. Income taxes

Income tax on the profit or loss for the year comprises current and deferred tax. Current tax is the expected tax payable on the taxable income for the year, using tax rates enacted or substantially enacted at the balance sheet date and any adjustment to tax payable in respect of previous years. Deferred tax is provided using the balance sheet liability method, providing for temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes. The amount of deferred tax provided is based on the expected settlement of the carrying amount of assets and liabilities, using tax rates enacted or substantially enacted at the balance sheet date. A deferred tax asset is recognized only to the extent that is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the temporary difference can be utilized. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realized.

16.1.9. Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash balances and call deposits.

16.1.10. Leases

Payments made under operating leases are recognized in the income statement on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Lease incentives received are recognized in the income statement as an integral part of the total lease expense. The Company leases property under non-cancellable operating leases expiring from two to ten years. Leases generally provide the company with a right of renewal at which terms are renegotiated. Lease payments comprise a base amount plus an incremental contingent rental. Contingent rentals are based on either operating criteria or movements in the Consumer Price Index. The lease payments will be increased at a fixed percentage after five years.

16.1.11. Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.

16.1.12. Compensated absences

The employees of the Company are entitled to compensated absences which are both accumulating and non-accumulating in nature. The expected cost of accumulating compensated absences is determined by actuarial valuation based on the additional amount expected to be paid as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the Balance Sheet date. Expense on non-accumulating compensated absences is recognized in the period in which the absences occur.

16.1.13. Foreign currency transactions

Foreign-currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are translated at exchange rates in effect at the Balance Sheet date. The gains or losses resulting from such translations are included in the profit or loss account. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at fair value are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date when the fair value was determined. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at historical cost are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date of transaction.
Revenue, expense and cash-flow items denominated in foreign currencies are translated using the exchange rate in effect on the date of the transaction. Transaction gains or losses realized upon settlement of foreign currency transactions are included in determining net profit for the period in which the transaction is settled.


Trade investments are the investments made to enhance the Company’s business interests. Investments are either classified as current or long-term based on Management’s intention at the time of purchase. Current investments are carried at the lower of cost and fair value of each investment individually. Cost for overseas investments comprises the Indian Rupee value of the consideration paid for the investment translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date of investment. Long-term investments are carried at cost less provisions recorded to recognize any decline, other than temporary, in the carrying value of each investment.

16.2. Notes on accounts

The previous year figures have been regrouped / reclassified, wherever necessary to conform to the current presentation.