Infosys Technologies Limited (‘Infosys’ or ‘the Company’) along with its controlled trusts, majority-owned and controlled subsidiary, Infosys BPO Limited (‘Infosys BPO’) and wholly-owned and controlled subsidiaries, Infosys Technologies (Australia) Pty. Limited (‘Infosys Australia’), Infosys Technologies (China) Co. Limited (‘Infosys China’), Infosys Consulting, Inc. (‘Infosys Consulting’), Infosys Technologies S. DE R.L. de C.V. (‘Infosys Mexico’), Infosys Technologies (Sweden) AB (‘Infosys Sweden’), Infosys Tecnologia DO Brasil LTDA. (‘Infosys Brazil’) and Infosys Public Services, Inc, (‘Infosys Public Services’), is a leading global technology services company. The Infosys group of companies (‘the Group’) provides end-to-end business solutions that leverage technology thereby enabling its clients to enhance business performance. The Group's operations are to provide solutions that span the entire software life cycle encompassing technical consulting, design, development, re-engineering, maintenance, systems integration, package evaluation and implementation, testing and infrastructure management services. In addition, the Group offers software products for the banking industry and business process management services.
The Company is a public limited company incorporated and domiciled in India and has its registered office at Bangalore, Karnataka, India. The Company has its primary listing on the Bombay Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange in India. The Company’s American Depositary Shares representing equity shares are also listed on NASDAQ Global Select Market. The Company’s consolidated financial statements were authorized for issuance by the Company’s Board of Directors on April 30, 2010.
These consolidated financial statements have been prepared in compliance with International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IFRS), under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis except for certain financial instruments and prepaid gratuity benefits which have been measured at fair values. Accounting policies have been applied consistently to all periods presented in these financial statements.
Infosys consolidates entities which it owns or controls. Control exists when the Group has the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities. In assessing control, potential voting rights that are currently exercisable are also taken into account. Subsidiaries are consolidated from the date control commences until the date control ceases.
The financial statements of the Group companies are consolidated on a line-by-line basis and intra-group balances and transactions including unrealized gain / loss from such transactions are eliminated upon consolidation. These financial statements are prepared by applying uniform accounting policies in use at the Group. Non-controlling interests which represent part of the net profit or loss and net assets of subsidiaries that are not, directly or indirectly, owned or controlled by the Company, are excluded.
The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions. These estimates, judgments and assumptions affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the period. Application of accounting policies that require critical accounting estimates involving complex and subjective judgments and the use of assumptions in these financial statements have been disclosed in Note 1.5. Accounting estimates could change from period to period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Appropriate changes in estimates are made as management becomes aware of changes in circumstances surrounding the estimates. Changes in estimates are reflected in the financial statements in the period in which changes are made and, if material, their effects are disclosed in the notes to the unaudited condensed consolidated interim financial statements.
The Company uses the percentage-of-completion method in accounting for its fixed-price contracts. Use of the percentage-of-completion method requires the Company to estimate the efforts expended to date as a proportion of the total efforts to be expended. Efforts expended have been used to measure progress towards completion as there is a direct relationship between input and productivity. Provisions for estimated losses, if any, on uncompleted contracts are recorded in the period in which such losses become probable based on the expected contract estimates at the reporting date.
The Company's two major tax jurisdictions are India and the U.S., though the Company also files tax returns in other foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgments are involved in determining the provision for income taxes, including amount expected to be paid/recovered for uncertain tax positions. Also refer to Note 2.17.
Business combinations are accounted for using IFRS 3 (Revised), Business Combinations. IFRS 3 requires the identifiable intangible assets and contingent consideration to be fair valued in order to ascertain the net fair value of identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of the acquiree. Significant estimates are required to be made in determining the value of contingent consideration and intangible assets. These valuations are conducted by independent valuation experts.
The Company derives revenues primarily from software development and related services, from business process management services and from the licensing of software products. Arrangements with customers for software development and related services and business process management services are either on a fixed-price, fixed-timeframe or on a time-and-material basis.
Revenue on time-and-material contracts are recognized as the related services are performed and revenue from the end of the last billing to the balance sheet date is recognized as unbilled revenues. Revenue from fixed-price, fixed-timeframe contracts, where there is no uncertainty as to measurement or collectability of consideration, is recognized as per the percentage-of-completion method. When there is uncertainty as to measurement or ultimate collectability revenue recognition is postponed until such uncertainty is resolved. Efforts expended have been used to measure progress towards completion as there is a direct relationship between input and productivity. Provisions for estimated losses, if any, on uncompleted contracts are recorded in the period in which such losses become probable based on the current contract estimates. Costs and earnings in excess of billings are classified as unbilled revenue while billings in excess of costs and earnings are classified as unearned revenue. Maintenance revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the underlying maintenance arrangement.
In arrangements for software development and related services and maintenance services, the Company has applied the guidance in IAS 18, Revenue, by applying the revenue recognition criteria for each separately identifiable component of a single transaction. The arrangements generally meet the criteria for considering software development and related services as separately identifiable components. For allocating the consideration, the Company has measured the revenue in respect of each separable component of a transaction at its fair value, in accordance with principles given in IAS 18. The price that is regularly charged for an item when sold separately is the best evidence of its fair value. In cases where the Company is unable to establish objective and reliable evidence of fair value for the software development and related services, the Company has used a residual method to allocate the arrangement consideration. In these cases the balance of the consideration, after allocating the fair values of undelivered components of a transaction has been allocated to the delivered components for which specific fair values do not exist.
License fee revenues are recognized when the general revenue recognition criteria given in IAS 18 are met. Arrangements to deliver software products generally have three elements: license, implementation and Annual Technical Services (ATS). The Company has applied the principles given in IAS 18 to account for revenues from these multiple element arrangements. Objective and reliable evidence of fair value has been established for ATS. Objective and reliable evidence of fair value is the price charged when the element is sold separately. When other services are provided in conjunction with the licensing arrangement and objective and reliable evidence of their fair values have been established, the revenue from such contracts are allocated to each component of the contract in a manner, whereby revenue is deferred for the undelivered services and the residual amounts are recognized as revenue for delivered elements. In the absence of objective and reliable evidence of fair value for implementation, the entire arrangement fee for license and implementation is recognized using the percentage-of-completion method as the implementation is performed. Revenue from client training, support and other services arising due to the sale of software products is recognized as the services are performed. ATS revenue is recognized ratably over the period in which the services are rendered.
Advances received for services and products are reported as client deposits until all conditions for revenue recognition are met.
The Company accounts for volume discounts and pricing incentives to customers as a reduction of revenue based on the ratable allocation of the discounts/ incentives amount to each of the underlying revenue transaction that results in progress by the customer towards earning the discount/ incentive. Also, when the level of discount varies with increases in levels of revenue transactions, the Company recognizes the liability based on its estimate of the customer's future purchases. If it is probable that the criteria for the discount will not be met, or if the amount thereof cannot be estimated reliably, then discount is not recognized until the payment is probable and the amount can be estimated reliably. The Company recognizes changes in the estimated amount of obligations for discounts in the period in which the change occurs. The discounts are passed on to the customer either as direct payments or as a reduction of payments due from the customer.
The Company presents revenues net of value-added taxes in its statement of comprehensive income.
Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and impairments, if any. The direct costs are capitalized until the property, plant and equipment are ready for use, as intended by management. The Company depreciates property, plant and equipment over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line method. The estimated useful lives of assets for current and comparative periods are as follows:
|Plant and machinery||5 years|
|Computer equipment||2-5 years|
|Furniture and fixtures||5 years|
Depreciation methods, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at each reporting date.
Advances paid towards the acquisition of property, plant and equipment outstanding at each balance sheet date and the cost of assets not put to use before such date are disclosed under 'Capital work-in-progress'. Subsequent expenditures relating to property, plant and equipment is capitalized only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with these will flow to the Group and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. Repairs and maintenance costs are recognized in net profit in the statement of comprehensive income when incurred. The cost and related accumulated depreciation are eliminated from the financial statements upon sale or retirement of the asset and the resultant gains or losses are recognized in net profit in the statement of comprehensive income. Assets to be disposed off are reported at the lower of the carrying value or the fair value less cost to sell.
Business combinations have been accounted for using the acquisition method under the provisions of IFRS 3 (Revised), Business Combinations.
The cost of an acquisition is measured at the fair value of the assets transferred, equity instruments issued and liabilities incurred or assumed at the date of acquisition. The cost of acquisition also includes the fair value of any contingent consideration. Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities and contingent liabilities assumed in a business combination are measured initially at their fair value on the date of acquisition.
Transaction costs that the Group incurs in connection with a business combination such as finders’ fees, legal fees, due diligence fees, and other professional and consulting fees are expensed as incurred.
Goodwill represents the cost of business acquisition in excess of the Group's interest in the net fair value of identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of the acquiree. When the net fair value of the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities acquired exceeds the cost of business acquisition, a gain is recognized immediately in net profit in the statement of comprehensive income. Goodwill is measured at cost less accumulated impairment losses.
Intangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated amortization and impairments. Intangible assets are amortized over their respective individual estimated useful lives on a straight-line basis, from the date that they are available for use. The estimated useful life of an identifiable intangible asset is based on a number of factors including the effects of obsolescence, demand, competition, and other economic factors (such as the stability of the industry, and known technological advances), and the level of maintenance expenditures required to obtain the expected future cash flows from the asset.
Research costs are expensed as incurred. Software product development costs are expensed as incurred unless technical and commercial feasibility of the project is demonstrated, future economic benefits are probable, the Company has an intention and ability to complete and use or sell the software and the costs can be measured reliably. The costs which can be capitalized include the cost of material, direct labour, overhead costs that are directly attributable to preparing the asset for its intended use. Research and development costs and software development costs incurred under contractual arrangements with customers are accounted as cost of sales.
Financial instruments of the Group are classified in the following categories: non-derivative financial instruments comprising of loans and receivables, available-for-sale financial assets and trade and other payables; derivative financial instruments under the category of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss; share capital and treasury shares. The classification of financial instruments depends on the purpose for which those were acquired. Management determines the classification of its financial instruments at initial recognition.
Loans and receivables are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market. They are presented as current assets, except for those maturing later than 12 months after the balance sheet date which are presented as non-current assets. Loans and receivables are measured initially at fair value plus transaction costs and subsequently carried at amortized cost using the effective interest method, less any impairment loss or provisions for doubtful accounts. Loans and receivables are represented by trade receivables, net of allowances for impairment, unbilled revenue, cash and cash equivalents, prepayments, certificates of deposit and other assets. Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash and bank deposits and deposits with corporations. The Company considers all highly liquid investments with a remaining maturity at the date of purchase of three months or less and that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash to be cash equivalents. Certificates of deposit is a negotiable money market instrument for funds deposited at a bank or other eligible financial institution for a specified time period.
Available-for-sale financial assets are non-derivatives that are either designated in this category or are not classified in any of the other categories. Available-for-sale financial assets are recognized initially at fair value plus transactions costs. Subsequent to initial recognition these are measured at fair value and changes therein, other than impairment losses and foreign exchange gains and losses on available-for-sale monetary items are recognized directly in other comprehensive income. When an investment is derecognized, the cumulative gain or loss in other comprehensive income is transferred to net profit in the statement of comprehensive income. These are presented as current assets unless management intends to dispose off the assets after 12 months from the balance sheet date.
Trade and other payables are initially recognized at fair value, and subsequently carried at amortized cost using the effective interest method.
Financial assets or financial liabilities, at fair value through profit or loss.
This category has two sub-categories wherein, financial assets or financial liabilities are held for trading or are designated as such upon initial recognition. A financial asset is classified as held for trading if it is acquired principally for the purpose of selling in the short term. Derivatives are categorized as held for trading unless they are designated as hedges.
The Company holds derivative financial instruments such as foreign exchange forward and option contracts to mitigate the risk of changes in foreign exchange rates on trade receivables and forecasted cash flows denominated in certain foreign currencies. The counterparty for these contracts is generally a bank or a financial institution. Although the Company believes that these financial instruments constitute hedges from an economic perspective, they do not qualify for hedge accounting under IAS 39, Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement. Any derivative that is either not designated a hedge, or is so designated but is ineffective per IAS 39, is categorized as a financial asset, at fair value through profit or loss.
Derivatives are recognized initially at fair value and attributable transaction costs are recognized in net profit in the statement of comprehensive income when incurred. Subsequent to initial recognition, derivatives are measured at fair value through profit or loss and the resultant exchange gains or losses are included in other income. Assets/ liabilities in this category are presented as current assets/current liabilities if they are either held for trading or are expected to be realized within 12 months after the balance sheet date.
Ordinary shares are classified as equity. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issuance of new ordinary shares and share options are recognized as a deduction from equity, net of any tax effects.
When any entity within the Group purchases the Company's ordinary shares, the consideration paid including any directly attributable incremental cost is presented as a deduction from total equity, until they are cancelled, sold or reissued. When treasury shares are sold or reissued subsequently, the amount received is recognized as an increase in equity, and the resulting surplus or deficit on the transaction is transferred to/ from retained earnings.
The Group assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is objective evidence that a financial asset or a group of financial assets is impaired. A financial asset is considered impaired if objective evidence indicates that one or more events have had a negative effect on the estimated future cash flows of that asset. Individually significant financial assets are tested for impairment on an individual basis. The remaining financial assets are assessed collectively in groups that share similar credit risk characteristics.
Impairment loss in respect of loans and receivables measured at amortized cost are calculated as the difference between their carrying amount, and the present value of the estimated future cash flows discounted at the original effective interest rate. Such impairment loss is recognized in net profit in the statement of comprehensive income.
Significant or prolonged decline in the fair value of the security below its cost and the disappearance of an active trading market for the security are objective evidence that the security is impaired. An impairment loss in respect of an available-for-sale financial asset is calculated by reference to its fair value and is recognized in net profit in the statement of comprehensive income. The cumulative loss that was recognized in other comprehensive income is transferred to net profit in the statement of comprehensive income upon impairment.
Goodwill is tested for impairment on an annual basis and whenever there is an indication that goodwill may be impaired, relying on a number of factors including operating results, business plans and future cash flows. For the purpose of impairment testing, goodwill acquired in a business combination is allocated to the Group's cash generating units (CGU) expected to benefit from the synergies arising from the business combination. A CGU is the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or group of assets. Impairment occurs when the carrying amount of a CGU including the goodwill, exceeds the estimated recoverable amount of the CGU. The recoverable amount of a CGU is the higher of its fair value less cost to sell and its value-in-use. Value-in-use is the present value of future cash flows expected to be derived from the CGU.
Total impairment loss of a CGU is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of goodwill allocated to the CGU and then to the other assets of the CGU pro-rata on the basis of the carrying amount of each asset in the CGU. An impairment loss on goodwill is recognized in net profit in the statement of comprehensive income and is not reversed in the subsequent period.
Intangible assets and property, plant and equipment are evaluated for recoverability whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. For the purpose of impairment testing, the recoverable amount (i.e. the higher of the fair value less cost to sell and the value-in-use) is determined on an individual asset basis unless the asset does not generate cash flows that are largely independent of those from other assets. In such cases, the recoverable amount is determined for the CGU to which the asset belongs.
If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized in net profit in the statement of comprehensive income is measured by the amount by which the carrying value of the assets exceeds the estimated recoverable amount of the asset.
An impairment loss for financial assets is reversed if the reversal can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment loss was recognized. An impairment loss in respect of goodwill is not reversed. In respect of other assets, an impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. The carrying amount of an asset other than goodwill is increased to its revised recoverable amount, provided that this amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of any accumulated amortization or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years. A reversal of impairment loss for an asset other than goodwill and available- for-sale financial assets that are equity securities is recognized in net profit in the statement of comprehensive income. For available-for-sale financial assets that are equity securities, the reversal is recognized in other comprehensive income.
In determining the fair value of its financial instruments, the Company uses a variety of methods and assumptions that are based on market conditions and risks existing at each reporting date. The methods used to determine fair value include discounted cash flow analysis, available quoted market prices and dealer quotes. All methods of assessing fair value result in general approximation of value, and such value may never actually be realized.
For all other financial instruments the carrying amounts approximate fair value due to the short maturity of those instruments. The fair value of securities, which do not have an active market and where it is not practicable to determine the fair values with sufficient reliability, are carried at cost less impairment.
A provision is recognized if, as a result of a past event, the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability.
The Company provides its clients with a fixed-period post sales support for corrections of errors and telephone support on all its fixed-price, fixed-timeframe contracts. Costs associated with such support services are accrued at the time related revenues are recorded and included in cost of sales. The Company estimates such costs based on historical experience and estimates are reviewed on a periodic basis for any material changes in assumptions and likelihood of occurrence.
Provisions for onerous contracts are recognized when the expected benefits to be derived by the Group from a contract are lower than the unavoidable costs of meeting the future obligations under the contract. The provision is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of continuing with the contract. Before a provision is established the Group recognizes any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.
The functional currency of Infosys and Infosys BPO is the Indian rupee. The functional currencies for Infosys Australia, Infosys China, Infosys Consulting, Infosys Mexico, Infosys Sweden, Infosys Brazil and Infosys Public Services are the respective local currencies. These financial statements are presented in Indian rupees (rounded off to crore).
Foreign-currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are translated into the relevant functional currency at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. The gains or losses resulting from such translations are included in net profit in the statement of comprehensive income. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at fair value are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date when the fair value was determined. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at historical cost are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date of transaction.
Transaction gains or losses realized upon settlement of foreign currency transactions are included in determining net profit for the period in which the transaction is settled. Revenue, expense and cash-flow items denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the relevant functional currencies using the exchange rate in effect on the date of the transaction.
The translation of financial statements of the foreign subsidiaries to the functional currency of the Company is performed for assets and liabilities using the exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet date and for revenue, expense and cash-flow items using the average exchange rate for the respective periods. The gains or losses resulting from such translation are included in currency translation reserves under other components of equity. When a subsidiary is disposed off, in part or in full, the relevant amount is transferred to net profit in the statement of comprehensive income.
Goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on the acquisition of a foreign entity are treated as assets and liabilities of the foreign entity and translated at the exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet date.
Basic earnings per equity share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per equity share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per equity share and also the weighted average number of equity shares that could have been issued upon conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. The diluted potential equity shares are adjusted for the proceeds receivable had the equity shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. the average market value of the outstanding equity shares). Dilutive potential equity shares are deemed converted as of the beginning of the period, unless issued at a later date. Dilutive potential equity shares are determined independently for each period presented.
The number of equity shares and potentially dilutive equity shares are adjusted retrospectively for all periods presented for any share splits and bonus shares issues including for changes effected prior to the approval of the financial statements by the Board of Directors.
Income tax expense comprises current and deferred income tax. Income tax expense is recognized in net profit in the statement of comprehensive income except to the extent that it relates to items recognized directly in equity, in which case it is recognized in other comprehensive income. Current income tax for current and prior periods is recognized at the amount expected to be paid to or recovered from the tax authorities, using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for all temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements except when the deferred income tax arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss at the time of the transaction. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realized.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date and are expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of changes in tax rates on deferred income tax assets and liabilities is recognized as income or expense in the period that includes the enactment or the substantive enactment date. A deferred income tax asset is recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences and tax losses can be utilized. Deferred income taxes are not provided on the undistributed earnings of subsidiaries and branches where it is expected that the earnings of the subsidiary or branch will not be distributed in the foreseeable future. The Company offsets current tax assets and current tax liabilities, where it has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts and where it intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously. Tax benefits of deductions earned on exercise of employee share options in excess of compensation charged to income are credited to share premium.
In accordance with the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972, Infosys provides for gratuity, a defined benefit retirement plan (the Gratuity Plan) covering eligible employees. The Gratuity Plan provides a lump-sum payment to vested employees at retirement, death, incapacitation or termination of employment, of an amount based on the respective employee's salary and the tenure of employment.
Liabilities with regard to the Gratuity Plan are determined by actuarial valuation, performed by an independent actuary, at each balance sheet date using the projected unit credit method. The Company fully contributes all ascertained liabilities to the Infosys Technologies Limited Employees' Gratuity Fund Trust (the Trust). In case of Infosys BPO, contributions are made to the Infosys BPO's Employees' Gratuity Fund Trust. Trustees administer contributions made to the Trusts and contributions are invested in specific designated instruments as permitted by law and investments are also made in mutual funds that invest in the specific designated instruments.
The Group recognizes the net obligation of a defined benefit plan in its balance sheet as an asset or liability, respectively in accordance with IAS 19, Employee benefits. The discount rate is based on the Government securities yield. Actuarial gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to net profit in the statement of comprehensive income in the period in which they arise. When the computation results in a benefit to the Group, the recognized asset is limited to the net total of any unrecognized past service costs and the present value of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan.
Certain employees of Infosys are also participants in a defined contribution plan. Until March 2005, the Company made monthly contributions under the superannuation plan (the Plan) to the Infosys Technologies Limited Employees' Superannuation Fund Trust (Infosys Superannuation Trust) based on a specified percentage of each covered employee's salary. The Company has no further obligations to the Plan beyond its monthly contributions. Effective April 1, 2005, a portion of the monthly contribution amount is being paid directly to the employees as an allowance and the balance amount is contributed to the Infosys Superannuation Trust.
Certain employees of Infosys BPO are also eligible for superannuation benefit. Infosys BPO has no further obligations to the superannuation plan beyond its monthly contribution which are periodically contributed to a trust fund, the corpus of which is invested with the Life Insurance Corporation of India.
Certain employees of Infosys Australia are also eligible for superannuation benefit. Infosys Australia has no further obligations to the superannuation plan beyond its monthly contribution.
Eligible employees of Infosys receive benefits from a provident fund, which is a defined benefit plan. Both the employee and the Company make monthly contributions to the provident fund plan equal to a specified percentage of the covered employee's salary. The Company contributes a part of the contributions to the Infosys Technologies Limited Employees' Provident Fund Trust. The remaining portion is contributed to the government administered pension fund. The rate at which the annual interest is payable to the beneficiaries by the trust is being administered by the government. The Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return from the investments of the Trust and the notified interest rate.
In respect of Infosys BPO, eligible employees receive benefits from a provident fund, which is a defined contribution plan. Both the employee and Infosys BPO make monthly contributions to this provident fund plan equal to a specified percentage of the covered employee's salary. Amounts collected under the provident fund plan are deposited in a government administered provident fund. The Company has no further obligation to the plan beyond its monthly contributions.
The Group has a policy on compensated absences which are both accumulating and non-accumulating in nature. The expected cost of accumulating compensated absences is measured based on the additional amount expected to be paid/availed as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the balance sheet date. Expense on non-accumulating compensated absences is recognized in the period in which the absences occur.
The Group recognizes compensation expense relating to share-based payments in net profit using a fair-value measurement method in accordance with IFRS 2, Share-Based Payment. Under the fair value method, the estimated fair value of awards is charged to income on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for each separately vesting portion of the award as if the award was in-substance, multiple awards. The Group includes a forfeiture estimate in the amount of compensation expense being recognized.
The fair value of each option is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes-Merton valuation model. The expected term of an option is estimated based on the vesting term and contractual term of the option, as well as expected exercise behaviour of the employee who receives the option. Expected volatility during the expected term of the option is based on historical volatility, during a period equivalent to the expected term of the option, of the observed market prices of the Company's publicly traded equity shares. Expected dividends during the expected term of the option are based on recent dividend activity. Risk-free interest rates are based on the government securities yield in effect at the time of the grant over the expected term.