1. Company overview and significant accounting policies
1.1 Company overview
Infosys Technologies Limited (‘Infosys’ or ‘the Company’) along with its controlled trusts, majority-owned and controlled subsidiary, Infosys BPO Limited (‘Infosys BPO’) and wholly-owned and controlled subsidiaries, Infosys Technologies (Australia) Pty. Limited (‘Infosys Australia’), Infosys Technologies (China) Company Limited (‘Infosys China’), Infosys Consulting, Inc. (‘Infosys Consulting’), Infosys Technologies S. de R. L. de C. V. (‘Infosys Mexico’), Infosys Technologies (Sweden) AB (‘Infosys Sweden’), Infosys Tecnologia do Brasil Ltda (‘Infosys Brasil’), Infosys Public Services, Inc., (‘Infosys Public Services’) and Infosys Technologies (Shanghai) Company Limited (‘Infosys Shanghai’) is a leading global technology services Company. The Infosys group of companies (‘the Group’) provides end-to-end business solutions that leverage technology thereby enabling its clients to enhance business performance. The Group’s operations are to provide solutions that span the entire software life cycle encompassing technical consulting, design, development, re-engineering, maintenance, systems integration, package evaluation and implementation, testing and infrastructure management services. In addition, the Group offers software products for the banking industry and business process management services.
The Company is a public limited Company incorporated and domiciled in India and has its registered office at Bangalore, Karnataka, India. The Company has its primary listing on the Bombay Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange in India. The Company’s American Depositary Shares representing equity shares are also listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market. The Company’s consolidated financial statements were authorized for issuance by the Company’s Board of Directors on April 15, 2011.
1.2 Basis of preparation of financial statements
These consolidated financial statements have been prepared in compliance with the International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IFRS), under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis except for certain financial instruments and prepaid gratuity benefits which have been measured at fair values. Accounting policies have been applied consistently to all periods presented in these consolidated financial statements.
1.3 Basis of consolidation
Infosys consolidates entities which it owns or controls. Control exists when the Group has the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities. In assessing control, potential voting rights that are currently exercisable are also taken into account. Subsidiaries are consolidated from the date control commences until the date control ceases.
The financial statements of the Group companies are consolidated on a line-by-line basis and intra-group balances and transactions including unrealized gain / loss from such transactions are eliminated upon consolidation. These financial statements are prepared by applying uniform accounting policies in use at the Group. Non-controlling interests which represent part of the net profit or loss and net assets of subsidiaries that are not, directly or indirectly, owned or controlled by the Company, are excluded.
1.4 Use of estimates
The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions. These estimates, judgments and assumptions affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the period. Application of accounting policies that require critical accounting estimates involving complex and subjective judgments and the use of assumptions in these financial statements have been disclosed in Note 1.5. Accounting estimates could change from period to period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Appropriate changes in estimates are made as the Management becomes aware of changes in circumstances surrounding the estimates. Changes in estimates are reflected in the financial statements in the period in which changes are made and, if material, their effects are disclosed in the notes to the consolidated financial statements.
1.5 Critical accounting estimates
a. Revenue recognition
The Company uses the percentage-of-completion method in accounting for its fixed-price contracts. Use of the percentage-of-completion method requires the Company to estimate the efforts expended to date as a proportion of the total efforts to be expended. Efforts expended have been used to measure progress towards completion as there is a direct relationship between input and productivity. Provisions for estimated losses, if any, on uncompleted contracts are recorded in the period in which such losses become probable based on the expected contract estimates at the reporting date.
b. Income taxes
The Company’s two major tax jurisdictions are India and the U.S., though the Company also files tax returns in other overseas jurisdictions. Significant judgments are involved in determining the provision for income taxes, including amount expected to be paid / recovered for uncertain tax positions (refer to note 2.17).
c. Business combinations and intangible assets
Business combinations are accounted for using IFRS 3 (Revised), Business Combinations. IFRS 3 requires the identifiable intangible assets and contingent consideration to be fair valued in order to ascertain the net fair value of identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of the acquiree. Significant estimates are required to be made in determining the value of contingent consideration and intangible assets. These valuations are conducted by independent valuation experts.
1.6 Revenue recognition
The Company derives revenues primarily from software development and related services, from business process management services and from the licensing of software products. Arrangements with customers for software development and related services and business process management services are either on a fixed-price, fixed-timeframe or on a time-and-material basis.
Revenue on time-and-material contracts are recognized as the related services are performed and revenue from the end of the last billing to the Balance Sheet date is recognized as unbilled revenues. Revenue from fixed-price, fixed-timeframe contracts, where there is no uncertainty as to measurement or collectability of consideration, is recognized as per the percentage-of-completion method.
When there is uncertainty as to measurement or ultimate collectability revenue recognition is postponed until such uncertainty is resolved. Efforts expended have been used to measure progress towards completion as there is a direct relationship between input and productivity. Provisions for estimated losses, if any, on uncompleted contracts are recorded in the period in which such losses become probable based on the current contract estimates.
Costs and earnings in excess of billings are classified as unbilled revenue while billings in excess of costs and earnings are classified as unearned revenue. Maintenance revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the underlying maintenance arrangement.
In arrangements for software development and related services and maintenance services, the Company has applied the guidance in ‘IAS 18 Revenue’, by applying the revenue recognition criteria for each separately, identifiable component of a single transaction. The arrangements generally meet the criteria for considering software development and related services as separately identifiable components. For allocating the consideration, the Company has measured the revenue in respect of each separable component of a transaction at its fair value, in accordance with principles given in IAS 18. The price that is regularly charged for an item when sold separately is the best evidence of its fair value.
In cases where the Company is unable to establish objective and reliable evidence of fair value for the software development and related services, the Company has used a residual method to allocate the arrangement consideration. In these cases the balance of the consideration, after allocating the fair values of undelivered components of a transaction has been allocated to the delivered components for which specific fair values do not exist.
License fee revenues are recognized when the general revenue recognition criteria given in IAS 18 are met. Arrangements to deliver software products generally have three elements : license, implementation and Annual Technical Services (ATS). The Company has applied the principles given in IAS 18 to account for revenues from these multiple element arrangements. Objective and reliable evidence of fair value has been established for ATS. Objective and reliable evidence of fair value is the price charged when the element is sold separately. When other services are provided in conjunction with the licensing arrangement and objective and reliable evidence of their fair values have been established, the revenue from such contracts are allocated to each component of the contract in a manner, whereby revenue is deferred for the undelivered services and the residual amounts are recognized as revenue for delivered elements.
In the absence of objective and reliable evidence of fair value for implementation, the entire arrangement fee for license and implementation is recognized using the percentage-of-completion method as the implementation is performed. Revenue from client training, support and other services arising due to the sale of software products is recognized as the services are performed. ATS revenue is recognized ratably over the period in which the services are rendered.
Advances received for services and products are reported as client deposits until all conditions for revenue recognition are met.
The Company accounts for volume discounts and pricing incentives to customers as a reduction of revenue based on the ratable allocation of the discounts / incentives amount to each of the underlying revenue transaction that results in progress by the customer towards earning the discount / incentive. Also, when the level of discount varies with increases in levels of revenue transactions, the Company recognizes the liability based on its estimate of the customer’s future purchases. If it is probable that the criteria for the discount will not be met, or if the amount thereof cannot be estimated reliably, then discount is not recognized until the payment is probable and the amount can be estimated reliably.
The Company recognizes changes in the estimated amount of obligations for discounts in the period in which the change occurs. The discounts are passed on to the customer either as direct payments or as a reduction of payments due from the customer.
The Company presents revenues net of value-added taxes in its statement of comprehensive income.
1.7 Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and impairments, if any. The direct costs are capitalized until the property, plant and equipment are ready for use, as intended by the Management.
The Company depreciates property, plant and equipment over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line method. The estimated useful lives of assets for current and comparative periods are as follows :
Plant and machinery
2 – 5 years
Furniture and fixtures
Depreciation methods, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at each reporting date.
Advances paid towards the acquisition of property, plant and equipment outstanding at each Balance Sheet date and the cost of assets not put to use before such date are disclosed under ‘Capital work-in-progress’. Subsequent expenditures relating to property, plant and equipment is capitalized only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with these will flow to the Group and the cost of the item can be measured reliably.
Repairs and maintenance costs are recognized in net profit in the statement of comprehensive income when incurred. The cost and related accumulated depreciation are eliminated from the financial statements upon sale or retirement of the asset and the resultant gains or losses are recognized in net profit in the statement of comprehensive income. Assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying value or the fair value less cost to sell.
1.8 Business combinations
Business combinations have been accounted for using the acquisition method under the provisions of IFRS 3 (Revised), Business Combinations.
The cost of an acquisition is measured at the fair value of the assets transferred, equity instruments issued and liabilities incurred or assumed at the date of acquisition. The cost of acquisition also includes the fair value of any contingent consideration. Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities and contingent liabilities assumed in a business combination are measured initially at their fair value on the date of acquisition.
Transaction costs that the Group incurs in connection with a business combination such as finders’ fees, legal fees, due diligence fees, and other professional and consulting fees are expensed as incurred.
Goodwill represents the cost of business acquisition in excess of the Group’s interest in the net fair value of identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of the acquiree. When the net fair value of the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities acquired exceeds the cost of business acquisition, a gain is recognized immediately in net profit in the statement of comprehensive income. Goodwill is measured at cost less accumulated impairment losses.
1.10 Intangible assets
Intangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated amortization and impairments. Intangible assets are amortized over their respective individual estimated useful lives on a straight-line basis, from the date that they are available for use. The estimated useful life of an identifiable intangible asset is based on a number of factors including the effects of obsolescence, demand, competition, and other economic factors (such as the stability of the industry, and known technological advances), and the level of maintenance expenditures required to obtain the expected future cash flows from the asset.
Research costs are expensed as incurred. Software product development costs are expensed as incurred unless technical and commercial feasibility of the project is demonstrated, future economic benefits are probable, the Company has an intention and ability to complete and use or sell the software and the costs can be measured reliably.
The costs which can be capitalized include the cost of material, direct labor, overhead costs that are directly attributable to preparing the asset for its intended use. Research and development costs and software development costs incurred under contractual arrangements with customers are accounted as cost of sales.