1.15 Foreign currency
The functional currency of Infosys and Infosys BPO is the Indian rupee. The functional currencies for Infosys Australia, Infosys China, Infosys Consulting, Infosys Mexico, Infosys Sweden, Infosys Brasil, Infosys Public Services and Infosys Shanghai are the respective local currencies. These financial statements are presented in Indian rupees, rounded off to the nearest crore; one crore equals 10 million.
Transactions and translations
Foreign currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are translated into the relevant functional currency at exchange rates in effect at the Balance Sheet date. The gains or losses resulting from such translations are included in net profit in the statement of comprehensive income. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at fair value are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date when the fair value was determined. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at historical cost are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date of transaction.
Transaction gains or losses realized upon settlement of foreign currency transactions are included in determining net profit for the period in which the transaction is settled. Revenue, expense and cash-flow items denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the relevant functional currencies using the exchange rate in effect on the date of the transaction.
The translation of financial statements of the foreign subsidiaries to the functional currency of the Company is performed for assets and liabilities using the exchange rate in effect at the Balance Sheet date and for revenue, expense and cash-flow items using the average exchange rate for the respective periods. The gains or losses resulting from such translation are included in currency translation reserves under other components of equity.
When a subsidiary is disposed of, in part or in full, the relevant amount is transferred to net profit in the statement of comprehensive income.
Goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on the acquisition of a foreign entity are treated as assets and liabilities of the foreign entity and translated at the exchange rate in effect at the Balance Sheet date.
1.16 Earnings per equity share
Basic earnings per equity share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per equity share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per equity share and also the weighted average number of equity shares that could have been issued upon conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. The diluted potential equity shares are adjusted for the proceeds receivable had the equity shares been actually issued at fair value which is the average market value of the outstanding equity shares. Dilutive potential equity shares are deemed converted as of the beginning of the period, unless issued at a later date. Dilutive potential equity shares are determined independently for each period presented.
The number of equity shares and potentially dilutive equity shares are adjusted in retrospect for all periods presented for any share splits and bonus shares issues including for changes effected prior to the approval of the financial statements by the Board of Directors.
1.17 Income tax
Income tax expense comprises current and deferred income tax. Income tax expense is recognized in net profit in the statement of comprehensive income except to the extent that it relates to items recognized directly in equity, in which case it is recognized in other comprehensive income. Current income tax for current and prior periods is recognized at the amount expected to be paid to or recovered from the tax authorities, using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for all temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements except when the deferred income tax arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss at the time of the transaction. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realized.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date and are expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of changes in tax rates on deferred income tax assets and liabilities is recognized as income or expense in the period that includes the enactment or the substantive enactment date.
A deferred income tax asset is recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences and tax losses can be utilized. Deferred income taxes are not provided on the undistributed earnings of subsidiaries and branches where it is expected that the earnings of the subsidiary or branch will not be distributed in the foreseeable future. The Company offsets current tax assets and current tax liabilities, where it has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts and where it intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously. Tax benefits of deductions earned on exercise of employee share options in excess of compensation charged to income are credited to share premium.
1.18 Employee benefits
In accordance with the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972, Infosys provides for gratuity, a defined benefit retirement plan (‘the Gratuity Plan’) covering eligible employees. The Gratuity Plan provides a lump sum payment to vested employees at retirement, death, incapacitation or termination of employment, of an amount based on the respective employee’s salary and the tenure of employment.
Liabilities with regard to the Gratuity Plan are determined by actuarial valuation, performed by an independent actuary, at each Balance Sheet date using the projected unit credit method. The Company fully contributes all ascertained liabilities to the Infosys Technologies Limited Employees’ Gratuity Fund Trust (‘the Trust’). In case of Infosys BPO, contributions are made to the Infosys BPO Employees’ Gratuity Fund Trust. Trustees administer contributions made to the Trusts and contributions are invested in specific designated instruments as permitted by law and investments are also made in mutual funds that invest in the specific designated instruments.
The Group recognizes the net obligation of a defined benefit plan in its Balance Sheet as an asset or liability, respectively in accordance with IAS 19, Employee benefits. The discount rate is based on the government securities yield. Actuarial gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to net profit in the statement of comprehensive income in the period in which they arise. When the computation results in a benefit to the Group, the recognized asset is limited to the net total of any unrecognized past service costs and the present value of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan.
Certain employees of Infosys are also participants in a defined contribution plan. The Company has no further obligations to the Plan beyond its monthly contributions. Certain employees of Infosys BPO are also eligible for superannuation benefit. Infosys BPO has no further obligations to the superannuation plan beyond its monthly contribution which are periodically contributed to a trust fund, the corpus of which is invested with the Life Insurance Corporation of India.
Certain employees of Infosys Australia are also eligible for superannuation benefit. Infosys Australia has no further obligations to the superannuation plan beyond its monthly contribution.
1.18.3 Provident fund
Eligible employees of Infosys receive benefits from a provident fund, which is a defined benefit plan. Both the employee and the Company make monthly contributions to the provident fund plan equal to a specified percentage of the covered employee’s salary. The Company contributes a part of the contributions to the Infosys Technologies Limited Employees’ Provident Fund Trust. The remaining portion is contributed to the government administered pension fund. The rate at which the annual interest is payable to the beneficiaries by the trust is being administered by the government. The Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return from the investments of the Trust and the notified interest rate.
In respect of Infosys BPO, eligible employees receive benefits from a provident fund, which is a defined contribution plan. Both the employee and Infosys BPO make monthly contributions to this provident fund plan equal to a specified percentage of the covered employee’s salary. Amounts collected under the provident fund plan are deposited in a government administered provident fund. The Company has no further obligation to the plan beyond its monthly contributions.
1.18.4 Compensated absences
The Group has a policy on compensated absences which are both accumulating and non-accumulating in nature. The expected cost of accumulating compensated absences is measured based on the additional amount expected to be paid / availed as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the Balance Sheet date. Expense on non-accumulating compensated absences is recognized in the period in which the absences occur.
1.19 Share-based compensation
The Group recognizes compensation expense relating to share-based payments in net profit using a fair-value measurement method in accordance with IFRS 2, Share-Based Payment. Under the fair value method, the estimated fair value of awards is charged to income on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for each separately, treating the vesting portion of the award as if the award was in-substance, multiple awards. The Group includes a forfeiture estimate in the amount of compensation expense being recognized.
The fair value of each option is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes-Merton valuation model. The expected term of an option is estimated based on the vesting term and contractual term of the option, as well as expected exercise behavior of the employee who receives the option. The expected volatility during the expected term of the option is based on historical volatility, during a period equivalent to the expected term of the option, of the observed market prices of the Company’s publicly traded equity shares. Expected dividends during the expected term of the option are based on recent dividend activity. Risk-free interest rates are based on the government securities yield in effect at the time of the grant over the expected term.
Final dividends on shares are recorded as a liability on the date of approval by the shareholders and interim dividends are recorded as a liability on the date of declaration by the Company’s Board of Directors.
1.21 Operating profit
Operating profit for the Group is computed considering the revenues, net of cost of sales, selling and marketing expenses and administrative expenses.
1.22 Other income
Other income is comprised primarily of interest income and dividend income. Interest income is recognized using the effective interest method. Dividend income is recognized when the right to receive payment is established.
Leases under which the Company assumes substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. When acquired, such assets are capitalized at fair value or present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease, whichever is lower. Lease payments under operating leases are recognized as an expense on a straight line basis in net profit in the statement of comprehensive income over the lease term.
1.24 Government grants
The Group recognizes government grants only when there is reasonable assurance that the conditions attached to them shall be complied with, and the grants will be received. Government grants related to depreciable fixed assets are treated as deferred income and are recognized in net profit in the statement of comprehensive income on a systematic and rational basis over the useful life of the asset. Government grants related to revenue are recognized on a systematic basis in net profit in the statement of comprehensive income over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs which they are intended to compensate.
1.25 Recent accounting pronouncements
1.25.1 Standards issued but not yet effective
IFRS 9 Financial Instruments : In November 2009, International Accounting Standards Board issued IFRS 9, Financial Instruments : Recognition and Measurement, to reduce complexity of the current rules on financial instruments as mandated in IAS 39. The effective date for IFRS 9 is annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2013 with permission for early adoption. IFRS 9 has fewer classification and measurement categories as compared to IAS 39 and has eliminated, held to maturity, available for sale and loans and receivables. Further it eliminates the rule based requirement of segregating embedded derivatives and tainting rules pertaining to, held to maturity investments. For an investment in an equity instrument which is not held for trading, the standard permits an irrevocable election, on initial recognition, on an individual share-by-share basis, to present all fair value changes from the investment in other comprehensive income. No amount recognized in other comprehensive income would ever be reclassified to Profit or Loss. The Group is required to adopt the standard by accounting year commencing April 1, 2014. The Group is currently evaluating the requirements of IFRS 9, and has not yet determined the impact on the consolidated financial statements.