16. Significant accounting policies and notes on accounts
Infosys Consulting, Inc. (ICI) is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Infosys Technologies Limited. ICI is singularly focused on making clients more competitive, and does so with rigorous linkages to client value, a set of proprietary competitive benchmarking tools, and the Infosys global delivery model.
16.1. Significant accounting policies
16.1.1. Basis of preparation of financial statements
These financial statements are prepared in accordance with Indian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis except for certain financial instruments which are measured at fair values. GAAP comprises mandatory accounting standards as prescribed by the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 and guidelines issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). Accounting policies have been consistently applied except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use.
16.1.2. Use of estimates
The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the Management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the period. Examples of such estimates include computation of percentage of completion which requires the Company to estimate the efforts expended to date as a proportion of the total efforts to be expended, provisions for doubtful debts, future obligations under employee retirement benefit plans, income taxes, post-sales customer support and the useful lives of fixed assets and intangible assets.
Accounting estimates could change from period to period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Appropriate changes in estimates are made as the Management becomes aware of changes in circumstances surrounding the estimates. Changes in estimates are reflected in the financial statements in the period in which changes are made and, if material, their effects are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.
The Management periodically assesses, using external and internal sources, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying value of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is higher of the asset’s net selling price and value in use, which means the present value of future cash flows expected to arise from the continuing use of the asset and its eventual disposal. An impairment loss for an asset is reversed if, and only if, the reversal can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment loss was recognized. The carrying amount of an asset is increased to its revised recoverable amount, provided that this amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of any accumulated amortization or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years.
16.1.3. Revenue recognition
The Company derives revenues primarily from consulting services. Arrangements with customers for consulting services are either on a fixed price, fixed-timeframe or on a time and material basis. Revenue on time-and-material contracts is recognized as the related services are rendered. Revenue from fixed-price, fixed-timeframe contracts is recognized as per the proportional performance method using an output measure of performance. Provisions for estimated losses, if any, on uncompleted contracts are recorded in the period in which such losses become probable based on the current contract estimates. Costs and earnings in excess of billings are classified as unbilled revenue while billings in excess of costs and earnings are classified as unearned revenue. When the Company receives advances for services, such amounts are reported as client deposits until all conditions for revenue recognition are met.
16.1.4. Provisions and contingent liabilities
A provision is recognized if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present legal obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are determined by the best estimate of the outflow of economic benefits required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. Where no reliable estimate can be made, a disclosure is made as contingent liability. A disclosure for a contingent liability is also made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. Where there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.
16.1.4.a. Post-sales client support and warranties
The Company provides its clients with a fixed-period warranty for corrections of errors and telephone support on all its fixed-price, fixed-timeframe contracts. Costs associated with such support services are accrued at the time when related revenues are recorded and included in cost of sales. The Company estimates such costs based on historical experience and the estimates are reviewed annually for any material changes in assumptions.
16.1.4.b. Onerous contracts
Provisions for onerous contracts are recognized when the expected benefits to be derived by the Company from a contract are lower than the unavoidable costs of meeting the future obligations under the contract. The provision is measured at lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of fulfilling the contract.
16.1.5. Fixed assets, intangible assets and capital work-in-progress
Fixed assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and impairments, if any. Direct costs are capitalized until fixed assets are ready for use. Capital work-in-progress comprises outstanding advances paid to acquire fixed assets, and the cost of fixed assets that are not yet ready for their intended use at the reporting date. Intangible assets are recorded at the consideration paid for acquisition of such assets and are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and impairment.
16.1.6. Depreciation and amortization
Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on the straight-line method over the useful lives of assets estimated by the Management. Depreciation for assets purchased / sold during a period is proportionately charged. Individual low cost assets (acquired for less than R 5,000/-) are depreciated over a period of one year from the date of acquisition. Intangible assets are amortized over their respective individual estimated useful lives on a straight-line basis, commencing from the date the asset is available to the Company for its use.
The Management estimates the useful lives for the other fixed assets as follows :
Plant and machinery
Furniture and fixtures
Depreciation methods, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at each reporting date.
16.1.7. Research and development
Research costs are expensed as incurred. Software product development costs are expensed as incurred unless technical and commercial feasibility of the project is demonstrated, future economic benefits are probable, the Company has an intention and ability to complete and use or sell the software and the costs can be measured reliably.
16.1.8. Foreign currency transactions
Foreign-currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are translated at exchange rates in effect at the Balance Sheet date.
The gains or losses resulting from such translations are included in the Profit and Loss account. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at fair value are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date when the fair value was determined. Non-monetary assets and
non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at historical cost are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date of transaction.
Revenue, expense and cash-flow items denominated in foreign currencies are translated using the exchange rate in effect on the date of the transaction. Transaction gains or losses realized upon settlement of foreign currency transactions are included in determining net profit for the period in which the transaction is settled.
16.1.9. Income taxes
Income taxes are accrued in the same period that the related revenue and expenses arise. A provision is made for income tax annually, based on the tax liability computed, after considering tax allowances and exemptions. Provisions are recorded when it is estimated that a liability due to disallowances or other matters is probable. The Company offsets, on a year on year basis, the current tax assets and liabilities, where it has a legally enforceable right and where it intends to settle such assets and liabilities on a net basis.
The differences that result between the profit considered for income taxes and the profit as per the financial statements are identified, and thereafter a deferred tax asset or deferred tax liability is recorded for timing differences, namely the differences that originate in one accounting period and reverse in another, based on the tax effect of the aggregate amount of timing difference. The tax effect is calculated on the accumulated timing differences at the end of an accounting period based on enacted or substantively enacted regulations. Deferred tax assets in a situation where unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward business loss exist, are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that sufficient future taxable income will be available, against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. Deferred tax assets, other than in a situation of unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward business loss, are recognized only if there is reasonable certainty that they will be realized. Deferred tax assets are reviewed for the appropriateness of their respective carrying values at each reporting date.
16.1.10. Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net profit after tax by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.
Trade investments are the investments made to enhance the Company’s business interests. Investments are either classified as current or long-term based on the Management’s intention at the time of purchase. Cost for overseas investments comprises the Indian rupee value of the consideration paid for the investment translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date of investment. Long-term investments are carried at cost less provisions recorded to recognize any decline, other than temporary, in the carrying value of each investment.
16.1.12. Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash and cash on deposit with banks and corporations.
16.1.13. Compensated absences
The employees of the Company are entitled to compensated absences which are both accumulating and non-accumulating in nature.
The expected cost of accumulating compensated absences is determined by actuarial valuation based on the additional amount expected to be paid as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the Balance Sheet date. Expense on non-accumulating compensated absences is recognized in the period in which the absences occur.