16. Significant accounting policies and notes on accounts
Infosys Consulting India Limited (ICIL) was incorporated on 19 August 2009 as a public limited company under the Companies Act 1956. ICIL is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Infosys Consulting Inc., U.S. The ultimate holding company is Infosys Technologies Limited. The Company provides end-to-end business solutions that leverage technology, thereby enabling clients to enhance business performance. ICIL is singularly focussed on making clients more competitive, and does so with rigorous linkages to client value, a set of proprietary competitive benchmarking tools, and the Infosys Global Delivery Model.
16.1. Significant accounting policies
16.1.1. Basis of preparation of financial statements
The financial statements are prepared in accordance with Indian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis. GAAP comprises mandatory accounting standards as prescribed by the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. Accounting policies have been consistently applied except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use. The financial statements have been presented in Indian Rupees.
16.1.2. Use of estimates
The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the Management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the period. Examples of such estimates include provisions for doubtful debts, future obligations under employee retirement benefit plans, income taxes and the useful lives of fixed assets.
Accounting estimates could change from period to period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Appropriate changes in estimates are made as the Management becomes aware of changes in circumstances surrounding the estimates. Changes in estimates are reflected in the financial statements in the period in which changes are made and, if material, their effects are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.
The Management periodically assesses using, external and internal sources, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying value of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is higher of the asset’s net selling price and value in use, which means the present value of future cash flows expected to arise from the continuing use of the asset and its eventual disposal. An impairment loss for an asset is reversed if, and only if, the reversal can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment loss was recognized. The carrying amount of an asset is increased to its revised recoverable amount, provided that this amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of any accumulated amortization or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years.
16.1.3. Revenue recognition
Revenue is primarily derived from providing software development and related services which is billed on a cost plus basis, in accordance with the terms of the agreement with the holding company. Arrangements with other customers for software development and related services are either on a fixed-price, fixed-time frame or on a time-and-material basis.
Revenue on time-and material contracts are recognized as the related services are performed and revenue from the end of the last billing to the Balance Sheet date is recognized as unbilled revenues. Revenue from fixed-price and fixed time frame contracts, where there is no uncertainty as to measurement or collectability of consideration, is recognized based upon the percentage of completion. When there is uncertainty as to measurement or ultimate collectability revenue recognition is postponed until such uncertainty is resolved. Cost and earnings in excess of billings are classified as unbilled revenue while billing in excess of cost and earnings is classified as unearned revenue. Provision for estimated losses, if any, on uncompleted contracts are recorded in the period in which such losses become probable based on the current estimates.
Interest is recognized using the time-proportion method, based on rates implicit in the transaction.
16.1.4. Provisions and contingent liabilities
A provision is recognized if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present legal obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are determined by the best estimate of the outflow of economic benefits required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. Where no reliable estimate can be made, a disclosure is made as contingent liability. A disclosure for a contingent liability is also made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. Where there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.
Provisions for onerous contracts, i.e. contracts where the expected unavoidable costs of meeting the obligations under the contract exceed the economic benefits expected to be received under it, are recognized when it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle a present obligation as a result of an obligating event based on a reliable estimate of such obligation.
16.1.5. Fixed assets and capital work-in-progress
Fixed assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and impairments, if any. Direct costs are capitalized until fixed assets are ready for use. Capital work-in-progress comprises outstanding advances paid to acquire fixed assets, and the cost of fixed assets that are not yet ready for their intended use at the reporting date.
Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on the straight-line method over the useful lives of assets estimated by the Management. Depreciation for assets purchased / sold during a period is proportionately charged. Individual low cost assets (acquired for less than 5,000/-) are depreciated over a period of one year from the date of acquisition. The Management estimates the useful lives for the other fixed assets as follows :
Depreciation methods, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at each reporting date.
16.1.7. Retirement benefits to employees
In accordance with the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972, the Company provides for gratuity, a defined benefit retirement plan (‘the Gratuity Plan’) covering eligible employees. The Gratuity Plan provides a lump-sum payment to vested employees at retirement, death, incapacitation or termination of employment, of an amount based on the respective employee’s salary and the tenure of employment with the Company.
Liabilities with regard to the Gratuity Plan are determined by actuarial valuation at each Balance Sheet date using the projected unit credit method. The Company fully contributes all ascertained liabilities to the Infosys Consulting India Limited Employees’ Gratuity Fund Trust (‘the Trust’). Trustees administer contributions made to the Trust and contributions are invested in specific investments as permitted by the law. The Company recognizes the net obligation of the Gratuity Plan in the Balance Sheet as an asset or liability, respectively in accordance with Accounting Standard (AS) 15, ‘Employee Benefits’. The Company’s overall expected long-term rate-of-return on assets has been determined based on consideration of available market information, current provisions of Indian law specifying the instruments in which investments can be made, and historical returns. The discount rate is based on the Government securities yield. Actuarial gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognized in the Profit and Loss account in the period in which they arise.
Certain employees of Infosys Consulting India Limited are also participants in the superannuation plan (‘the Plan’) which is a defined contribution plan. The Company has no further obligations to the Plan beyond its monthly contributions. A portion of the monthly contribution amount is paid directly to the employees as an allowance and the balance amount is contributed to Infosys Consulting India Limited Employees’ Superannuation Trust.
16.1.7.c. Provident fund
Eligible employees receive benefits from a provident fund, which is a defined contribution plan. Both the employee and the Company make monthly contributions to the provident fund plan equal to a specified percentage of the covered employee’s salary. Amounts collected under the provident fund plan are deposited with Life Insurance Corporation of India. The Company has no further obligations under the provident fund plan beyond its monthly contributions.
16.1.7.d. Compensated absences
The employees of the Company are entitled to compensated absences which are both accumulating and non-accumulating in nature. The expected cost of accumulating compensated absences is determined by an actuarial valuation based on the additional amount expected to be paid as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the Balance Sheet date. Expense on non-accumulating compensated absences is recognized in the Profit and Loss account in the period in which the absences occur.
16.1.8. Research and development
Research costs are expensed as incurred. Software product development costs are expensed as incurred unless technical and commercial feasibility of the project is demonstrated, future economic benefits are probable, the Company has an intention and ability to complete and use or sell the software and the costs can be measured reliably.
16.1.9. Foreign currency transactions
Foreign-currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are translated at exchange rates in effect at the Balance Sheet date. The gains or losses resulting from such translations are included in the Profit and Loss account.
Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at fair value are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date when the fair value was determined. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at historical cost are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date of transaction.
Revenue, expense and cash-flow items denominated in foreign currencies are translated using the exchange rate in effect on the date of the transaction. Transaction gains or losses realized upon settlement of foreign currency transactions are included in determining net profit for the period in which the transaction is settled.
16.1.10. Income taxes
Income taxes are accrued in the same period that the related revenue and expenses arise. A provision is made for income tax annually, based on the tax liability computed, after considering tax allowances and exemptions. Provisions are recorded when it is estimated that a liability due to disallowances or other matters is probable. Minimum alternate tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives rise to future economic benefits in the form of tax credit against future income tax liability, is recognized as an asset in the Balance Sheet if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal tax after the tax holiday period and the resultant asset can be measured reliably. The Company offsets, on a year on year basis, the current tax assets and liabilities, where it has a legally enforceable right and where it intends to settle such assets and liabilities on a net basis.
The differences that result between the profit considered for income taxes and the profit as per the financial statements are identified, and thereafter a deferred tax asset or deferred tax liability is recorded for timing differences, namely the differences that originate in one accounting period and reverse in another, based on the tax effect of the aggregate amount of timing difference. The tax effect is calculated on the accumulated timing differences at the end of an accounting period based on enacted or substantively enacted regulations. Deferred tax assets in a situation where unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward business loss exists, are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax asset can be realized. Deferred tax assets, other than in situation of unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward business loss, are recognized only if there is reasonable certainty that they will be realized. Deferred tax assets are reviewed for the appropriateness of their respective carrying values at each reporting date.
16.1.11. Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net profit after tax by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.
16.1.12. Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash and cash on deposits with banks and corporations.
16.1.13. Cash Flow statement
Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby net profit before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature, any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments and item of income or expenses associated with investing or financing cash flows. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated.
Lease under which the Company assumes substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. Such assets acquired are capitalized at fair value of the asset or present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease, whichever is lower. Lease payments under operating leases are recognized as an expense on a straight line basis in the Profit and Loss account over the lease term.