14. Significant accounting policies and notes on accounts
Infosys Technologies S. de R. L. de C. V. (Infosys Mexico) enters into contracts with Mexican companies to provide onsite services globally. Infosys Mexico sub-contracts the services to be provided outside Mexico and related territories to Infosys – India (Infosys Technologies Limited) to leverage the global delivery model (discussed later). The roles of Infosys Mexico in relation to these services is limited to marketing, business development, project management and integration of the services provided by Infosys Technologies Limited and final delivery of software to the client.
14.1. Significant accounting policies
14.1.1. Basis of preparation of financial statements
These financial statements as at year ended December 31, 2010 have been prepared under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis except for certain financial instruments which have been measured at fair values. Accounting policies have been applied consistently to all periods presented in these financial statements.
14.1.2. Use of estimates
The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the period. Examples of such estimates include computation of percentage of completion which requires the Company to estimate the efforts expended to date as a proportion of the total efforts to be expended, provisions for doubtful debts, future obligations under employee retirement benefit plans, income taxes, post-sales customer support and the useful lives of fixed assets and intangible assets.
Accounting estimates could change from period to period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Appropriate changes in estimates are made as the Management becomes aware of changes in circumstances surrounding the estimates. Changes in estimates are reflected in the financial statements in the period in which changes are made and, if material, their effects are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.
The Management periodically assesses, using external and internal sources, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying value of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is higher of the asset’s net selling price and value in use, which means the present value of future cash flows expected to arise from the continuing use of the asset and its eventual disposal. An impairment loss for an asset is reversed if, and only if, the reversal can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment loss was recognized. The carrying amount of an asset is increased to its revised recoverable amount, provided that this amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of any accumulated amortization or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years.
14.1.3. Revenue recognition
Revenue is primarily derived from software development and related services and from business process management services. Arrangements with customers for software development and related services are either on a fixed-price, fixed-timeframe or on a time-and-material basis.
Revenue on time-and-material contracts are recognized as the related services are performed and revenue from the end of the last billing to the Balance Sheet date is recognized as unbilled revenues. Revenue from fixed-price and fixed-timeframe contracts, where there is no uncertainty as to measurement or collectability of consideration, is recognized based upon the percentage of completion. When there is uncertainty as to measurement or ultimate collectability revenue recognition is postponed until such uncertainty is resolved. Cost and earnings in excess of billings are classified as unbilled revenue while billing in excess of cost and earnings is classified as unearned revenue. Provision for estimated losses, if any, on uncompleted contracts are recorded in the period in which such losses become probable based on the current estimates.
Annual Technical Services revenue and revenue from fixed-price maintenance contracts are recognized ratably over the period in which services are rendered. Revenue from the sale of user licenses for software applications is recognized on transfer of the title in the user license, except in case of multiple element contracts, which require significant implementation services, where revenue for the entire arrangement is recognized over the implementation period based upon the percentage-of-completion. Revenue from client training, support and other services arising due to the sale of software products is recognized as the related services are performed.
The Company accounts for volume discounts and pricing incentives to customers as a reduction of revenue based on the ratable allocation of the discount / incentive amount to each of the underlying revenue transactions that result in progress by the customer towards earning the discount / incentive. Also, when the level of discount varies with increases in levels of revenue transactions, the Company recognizes the liability based on its estimate of the customer’s future purchases. If it is probable that the criteria for the discount will not be met, or if the amount thereof cannot be estimated reliably, then discount is not recognized until the payment is probable and the amount can be estimated reliably. The Company recognizes changes in the estimated amount of obligations for discounts using a cumulative catchup approach. The discounts are passed on to the customer either as direct payments or as a reduction of payments due from the customer.
The Company presents revenues net of value-added taxes in its Profit and Loss account.
14.1.4. Provisions and contingent liabilities
A provision is recognized if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present legal obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are determined by the best estimate of the outflow of economic benefits required to settle the obligation at the reporting date. Where no reliable estimate can be made, a disclosure is made as contingent liability. A disclosure for a contingent liability is also made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. Where there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.
14.1.5. Post-sales client support and warranties
The Company provides its clients with a fixed-period warranty for corrections of errors and telephone support on all its fixed-price, fixed-timeframe contracts. Costs associated with such support services are accrued at the time when related revenues are recorded and included in cost of sales. The Company estimates such costs based on historical experience and the estimates are reviewed annually for any material changes in assumptions.
14.1.6. Fixed assets, intangible assets and capital work-in-progress
Fixed assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and impairments, if any. Direct costs are capitalized until fixed assets are ready for use. Capital work-in-progress comprises outstanding advances paid to acquire fixed assets, and the cost of fixed assets that are not yet ready for their intended use at the reporting date. Intangible assets are recorded at the consideration paid for acquisition of such assets and are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and impairment.
14.1.7. Depreciation and amortization
Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on the straight-line method over the useful lives of assets estimated by the Management. Depreciation for assets purchased / sold during a period is proportionately charged. Individual low cost assets (acquired for less than 5,000/-) are depreciated over a period of one year from the date of acquisition. Intangible assets are amortized over their respective individual estimated useful lives on a straight-line basis, commencing from the date the asset is available to the Company for its use. The Management estimates the useful lives for the other fixed assets as follows :
Plant and machinery
2 – 5 years
Furniture and fixtures
Depreciation methods, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at each reporting date.
14.1.8. Foreign currency transactions
Foreign-currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are translated at exchange rates in effect at the Balance Sheet date. The gains or losses resulting from such translations are included in the profit or loss account. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at fair value are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date when the fair value was determined. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at historical cost are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date of transaction.
Revenue, expense and cash-flow items denominated in foreign currencies are translated using the exchange rate in effect on the date of the transaction. Transaction gains or losses realized upon settlement of foreign currency transactions are included in determining net profit for the period in which the transaction is settled.
14.1.9. Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash and cash on deposit with banks.
Lease under which the Company assumes substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. Such assets acquired are capitalized at fair value of the asset or present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease, whichever is lower. Lease payments under operating leases are recognized as an expense on a straight line basis in the Profit and Loss account over the lease term.
14.1.11 Government grants
The Company recognizes government grants only when there is reasonable assurance that the conditions attached to them shall be complied with, and the grants will be received. Government grants related to depreciable fixed assets are treated as deferred income and are recognized in the Profit and Loss statement on a systematic and rational basis over the useful life of the asset. Government grants related to revenue are recognized on a systematic basis in the Profit and Loss statement over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs which they are intended to compensate.
14.1.12. Compensated absences
The employees of the Company are entitled to compensated absences which are both accumulating and non-accumulating in nature. The expected cost of accumulating compensated absences is determined by actuarial valuation based on the additional amount expected to be paid as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the Balance Sheet date. Expense on non-accumulating compensated absences is recognized in the period in which the absences occur.
14.1.13. Income taxes
Income taxes are accrued in the same period that the related revenue and expenses arise. A provision is made for income tax annually, based on the tax liability computed, after considering tax allowances and exemptions. Provisions are recorded when it is estimated that a liability due to disallowances or other matters is probable. The Company offsets, on a year on year basis, the current tax assets and liabilities, where it has a legally enforceable right and where it intends to settle such assets and liabilities on a net basis.
The Income Tax Law in Mexico provides that companies must comply with Maquiladoras provisions regarding transfer pricing. Therefore, requiring the Company to comply with a minimum taxable income, Company has to choose between the two procedures i.e. method of transfer pricing (APA) or the Safe Harbor method. For 2010 and 2009, the Company selected Method of transfer pricing (APA) method for 2010 and Safe Harbor method for 2009 to pay Income Tax.
According to the procedures applied by the Company to determine the income tax there are temporary difference that give rise to deferred taxes for 2010 and 2009, but since Company is determining the taxable income by applying Safe Harbor rule, deferred taxes are not generated
For the year 2010 and 2009, 55% and 70% of the total revenue is recognized related companies including parent company, which is arrived after adding percentage to the cost and expense of operations, except those required in the contract. These revenues are adjusted annually to meet the provisions relating to transfer pricing, according to Mexican law of Income Tax.
For the current year 2010 income tax rate applicable is 30%.