13. Significant accounting policies and Notes on accounts
During March 2009, the holding company incorporated a wholly owned subsidiary in Sweden. The subsidiary also has a branch in Norway as Infosys Technologies (Sweden) AB Norway branch. The Company is engaged in the business of providing software development and consulting solutions.
13.1. Significant accounting policies
13.1.1. Basis of preparation of Financial Statements
The Financial Statements are prepared in accordance with Indian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis except for certain financial instruments which are measured at fair values. GAAP comprises mandatory accounting standards as prescribed by the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006, and the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. Accounting policies have been consistently applied except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use.
13.1.2. Use of estimates
The preparation of the Financial Statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to contingent liabilities as at the date of the Financial Statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the period. Examples of such estimates include computation of percentage of completion which requires the Company to estimate the efforts expended to date as a proportion of the total efforts to be expended, provisions for doubtful debts, future obligations under employee retirement benefit plans, income taxes, post-sales customer support and the useful lives of fixed assets and intangible assets.
Accounting estimates could change from period to period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Appropriate changes in estimates are made as the Management becomes aware of changes in circumstances surrounding the estimates. Changes in estimates are reflected in the Financial Statements in the period in which changes are made and, if material, their effects are disclosed in the notes to the Financial Statements.
13.1.3. Revenue recognition
Revenue is primarily derived from software development and related services and from the licensing of software products. Arrangements with customers for software development and related services are either on a fixed-price, fixed-timeframe or on a time-and-material basis.
Revenue on time-and-material contracts are recognized as the related services are performed and revenue from the end of the last billing to the Balance Sheet date is recognized as unbilled revenues. Revenue from fixed-price, fixed-timeframe contracts is recognized as per the percentage-of-completion method. Efforts expended have been used to measure progress towards completion as there is a direct relationship between input and productivity. Provisions for estimated losses, if any, on uncompleted contracts are recorded in the period in which such losses become probable based on the current contract estimates. Costs and earnings in excess of billings are classified as unbilled revenue while billings in excess of costs and earnings are classified as unearned revenue. Maintenance revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the underlying maintenance arrangement.
13.1.4. Notes on compensated absences
The employees of the Company are entitled to compensated absences which are both accumulating and non-accumulating in nature. The expected cost of accumulating compensated absences is determined by actuarial valuation based on the additional amount expected to be paid as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the Balance Sheet date. Expense on non-accumulating compensated absences is recognized in the period in which the absences occur.
13.1.5. Foreign currency transactions
Foreign-currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are translated at exchange rates in effect at the Balance Sheet date. The gains or losses resulting from such translations are included in the Profit and Loss account. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at fair value are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date when the fair value was determined. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at historical cost are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date of transaction.
Revenue, expense and cash-flow items denominated in foreign currencies are translated using the exchange rate in effect on the date of the transaction. Transaction gains or losses realized upon settlement of foreign currency transactions are included in determining net profit for the period in which the transaction is settled.
13.1.6. Income taxes
Income tax expense comprises of only current tax. Income tax expense is recognized in net profit except to the extent that it relates to items recognized directly in equity, in which case it is recognized in other comprehensive income. Current income tax for current and prior periods is recognized at the amount expected to be paid to or recovered from the tax authorities, using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date.
13.1.7. Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.
13.1.8. Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash and cash on deposit with banks.
Lease under which the Company assumes substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. Such assets acquired are capitalized at fair value of the asset or present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease, whichever is lower. Lease payments under operating leases are recognized as an expense on a straight-line basis in the Profit and Loss account over the lease term.