Architecture and design

Trend 1: Enterprises adopt CNCF cloud-native development standardization

The microservices architecture helped achieve ondemand elasticity and scalability of the APIs for both on-premise and public hyperscaler infrastructure. APIs and microservices had to deploy on hybrid infrastructure in addition to serverless infrastructure to support the enterprise requirements. This brought the focus to the standardization of orchestration, container management, cluster management, circuit breaker and monitoring on hybrid and serverless infrastructure. The CNCF curates and promotes opensource projects that enable modern, cloud-native applications. The industry now moves toward the adoption of projects in the CNCF landscape (trust) to quickly (speed) build open-source-based (freedom), cloud-native and agnostic applications.

Modern practices (microservices, monitoring, logging), packaging (containerization, orchestration) and automation (DevOps-based pipelines) are crucial to cloud-native solution delivery. The CNCF acts as a repository for trusted open-source projects such as Kubernetes, HELM, Jaeger and Istio, which are used in many deployments today.

Enterprises must work toward standardized cloudnative development. The CNCF cloud-native landscape acts as a good reference point to identify and use appropriate building blocks. Technology leaders like Google, Microsoft, Amazon, and Cisco are members of the CNCF. In fact, Microsoft’s recent distributed application runtime (DAPR) framework (a portable, event-driven runtime building block for microservices) already incorporates the CNCF interactive landscape to help build cloud-native solutions.

Infosys partnered with one of the world’s leading car manufacturers to architect and develop a next-generation connected car platform for safety and security services. The platform was based on cloud-native and cloud vendor-agnostic technology stacks, which allowed the customer to migrate smoothly across cloud vendors.

Architecture and design

Trend 2: Newer application layer protocols replace HTTP REST for greater efficiency

Industry adoption of the hyperscaler brought the critical focus on security, performance, lightweight containers and availability. The APIs and microservices need to support the hybrid UI/UX ecosystem in addition to the serverless solutions. This brought a new requirement to look beyond TCP/IP, HTTP protocols. Previously, interservice communications in the microservices world were primarily REST, despite their complexity and inefficiencies in certain use cases. Microservices-based solutions increasingly use new application layer protocols like Google’s Remote Procedure Call (gRPC) and RSocket for improved security and lightweight deployment images to support serverless needs.

With modern cloud-native systems, there will be a need to support multiple application protocols in the context of use-case needs. A good example of a mixed implementation is the use of potentially different application protocols in query flow (REST/HTTP) and response flow (GraphQL). Today, a mix of application protocols (REST/gRPC/GraphQL) work together to improve efficiencies.

Additionally, with the Internet Engineering Task Force’s work on the draft HTTP/3 specifications, it will not be long before application protocols based on HTTP/3 also enter the mix.

Infosys partnered with a manufacturing giant to architect and develop a multi-cloud microservices platform. The solution involved various modern application layer protocols other than HTTP REST (gRPC, Event Messaging) to integrate with services across the landscape.

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