Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) has become pervasive in this era of technological advancements. Enterprises are leveraging AI at varying degrees, triggered by pandemic-induced disruptions. AI has evolved from augmented intelligence using classical algorithms to responsible and explainable AI systems using advanced deep learning-based models. Businesses should move across three horizons to evolve as AI-first live enterprises.

Shift toward pervasive AI

Adapting to market dynamics: the three horizons
Show all horizons

H3

Transformer architectures, multitask learning

Self-supervised

Key Patterns

  • Billion/trillion parameter models
  • Zero-shot learning
  • Quantum AI
  • Auto ML
  • AI-based code generation
  • 3D object detection
  • Multitask learning

H2

Transfer learning, responsible AI

Less data, explainable systems

  • AI governance – AI ethics, explainable AI
  • Model pruning, quantization tech
  • Transfer learning
  • Neural networks
  • Object detection, classification, segmentation

H1

Conventional AI

Augmenting Intelligence

  • Prediction Recommendations
  • Logistic regression
  • Classification regression
  • Rules-based
  • Expression-based

Key trends across AI subdomains

AI algorithms

Trend 1

Deep neural network architectures help improve generalization and accuracy

Deep-learning algorithms promise higher accuracy and better generalization characteristics than classical algorithms such as SVM, Naive Bayes, and random forest. Enterprise-class problems can be aptly resolved through graphics processing unit (GPU) computing; accessibility of large, labeled data; and fast-paced innovations in deep-learning algorithms.

Trend 2

Transition from system 1 to system 2 deep learning

The current state of deep learning-based AI is referred as system 1 deep learning. For example, a person can easily drive in a known vicinity without consciously focusing on directions. However, the same person in an unknown vicinity would require logical reasoning and connections to drive to the destination.

Natural language processing

Trend 3

Active learning for content intelligence from documents

Enterprises embed information in various types of documents, digital or handwritten, comprising research study documents, know-your-customer (KYC) forms, payslips, and invoices. Here, extracting and systematically digitizing this information is a huge challenge.

Speech

Trend 4

Speech processing through deep learning

In the past year, deep-learning models have taken over the majority of speech processing, replacing conventional models. These neural network models have substantially improved the quality of speech recognition, text-to-speech (TTS), speech diarization, among others.

Trend 5

Open-source models now comparable to commercial counterparts

Traditionally, speech processing models, backed by large speech-to-text (STT) and TTS corpora, dominated the market. Most of these models, offered via cloud services, belonged to large tech giants. However, open-source models are advancing at speed.

Trend 6

End-to-end conversational offerings in focus

Offerings that ease the deployment of speech processing with simultaneous services, such as STT, text synthesis, and TTS, are becoming widely available. With these prominent capabilities, businesses can deploy speech processing for multiple problems simultaneously and achieve faster results.

Computer vision

Trend 7

Image segmentation, classification, and attribute extraction through AI

Object detection, segmentation, and classification are the building blocks to address complex computer vision challenges. Object detection helps identify an object in the image, forms a rectangular boundary, and creates a bounding box to narrow down the object. Then, image segmentation dentifies the object with all curves, lines, and the exact shape.

Trend 8

AI and cloud power video insights

AI's application to videos offers interesting possibilities, such as generating video captions, video highlights, content moderation, brand coverage timings, surveillance, and people/object tracking. For applications like these, cloud computing is necessary for most inference tasks. In fact, object tracking and surveillance are far more powerful in the cloud than on devices, even with new advances in light detection and ranging technology on edge devices such as iPhone.

AI on the edge

Trend 9

Edge-based intelligence to address latency and point-specific contextual learning

Smart reply, auto suggestions for grammar, sentence completion while typing on a phone, voice recognition, voice assistants, facial biometrics to unlock a phone or an autonomous vehicle navigation system, robotics, augmented reality applications — all use local, natively deployed AI models to improve the response time. In the absence of a local AI model, the inference or prediction would be based on a remote server, and the experience would be suboptimal.

Data engineering

Trend 10

AI-powered technologies enhance data scientists' experience

Even today, many data scientists manually analyze data by using various techniques, with the need to apply various data cleansing activities. There is no standardized set of tools for data wrangling, analytics, feature engineering, and model experimentation.

Trend 11

Responsible data crucial for safe and sound AI development

Explainable AI through responsible data is still evolving. The bias on data can have devastating effects on business outcomes, causing serious ethical and regulatory issues. The application of responsible and ethical data policies in AI development is beneficial for businesses and societies.

Trend 12

AI-based tools enhance data-quality

Whether it is for decision-making by corporate executives, frontline staff, or intelligent ML models, any intelligent enterprise needs high-quality data to operate. However, data quality issues are widespread. AI-based data-quality analysis has become an integral part of the ML Ops pipeline.

Responsible AI

Trend 13

AI ethics throughout the development lifecycle

Responsible AI concepts should be factored in from the beginning to ensure the business stays out of any AI ethics and bias issues. Explainability is one such critical concept. The design and development teams should be aware and informed of every step in the AI lifecycle to answer any related questions, providing all information AI users would seek to understand how and why the system made a decision.

AI platforms

Trend 14

Integrated AI lifecycle tools to drive industrialized AI

Enterprises cannot afford to take an artisan approach to AI and experiment with pilots and a handful of disparate AI systems built in silos. Without focusing on achieving AI at scale, data scientists created “shadow” IT environments on their laptops, using their preferred tools to fashion custom models from scratch and prepare data differently for each model.

Trend 15

From data scientist to data engineer with automated ML

Data scientists spend around 80% of their efforts on finding data rather than building AI models. Creating an AI model from scratch needs effort and investment for collecting datasets, labeling data, choosing algorithms, defining network architecture, establishing hyperparameters, etc. Further, the choice of language, frameworks, libraries, client preferences, etc., differs from one AI problem to another.

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Amit Gaonkar

Amit Gaonkar

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Kamalkumar Rathinasamy

Kamalkumar Rathinasamy

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Dr. Puranjoy Bhattacharya

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Dr. Ravi Kumar G V V

Dr. Ravi Kumar G V V

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Swaminathan Natarajan

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